TOWARDS ACHIEVING AN EFFICIENT, EFFECTIVE AND DEVELOPMENT-ORIENTATED PUBLIC SERVICE AND AN EMPOWERED, FAIR AND INCLUSIVE CITIZENSHIP
The Delivery Agreement of Outcome 12 is a negotiated charter which reflects the commitment of the key partners involved in the direct delivery process, working together to undertake activities effectively and on time to produce the mutually agreed-upon outputs which in turn will contribute to the achievement of Outcome 12.
The implementation of the Delivery Agreement will be phased in over a period of four years. Its implementation will be reviewed annually in consultation with the Department for Performance Monitoring and Evaluation. .
One of the critical features of the Delivery Agreement is the new implementation model. This implementation model requires departments, provinces and institutions which are the custodians of the legislative, regulatory and policy frameworks (to play a much stronger leadership and support role in assisting the rest of government to implement their work efficiently and effectively. The implementation of Outcome 12 will be actioned with Part A responding on “An efficient, effective and development oriented Public Service and Part B on “An empowered, fair and inclusive citizenship”.
The delivery agreement for Outcome 12 covers the following key strategic areas;
- Service Delivery Quality and Access
- Human Resource Management and Development
- Business process, systems, decision rights and accountability
- Tackling corruption effectively
- Nation Building and National Identity
- Citizen Participation; and
- Social Cohesion
AN EFFICIENT, EFFECTIVE AND DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED PUBLIC SERVICE
Output 1: Service Delivery Quality and Access
The new Outcomes-Based Approach is being introduced at a time when access to government services has improved significantly for many people in South Africa, i.e. since 1994. A 2009 geographical access study conducted by DPSA shows however, that many people still travel very long distances to access service points in some areas despite improvement government services.
Few departments have developed geographic access norms that can assist them in reviewing access to their services and to set targets for improving access, in particular, to reduce the travel distances to their service points. Furthermore, minimum infrastructure access norms have not been developed to facilitate physical access to government service points for women and people with disabilities.
Since 1994, the public sector has performed reasonably well in implementing government programmes and initiatives. Access to public services has improved, particularly the quality of life in those areas neglected under apartheid. More work, however, needs to be done to improve service delivery quality and access.
Output 2: Human Resource Management and Development
The focus areas for this output includes, recruitment, retention and career-pathing, discipline and human resource planning, skills development and cadre development. Whilst there is a need for regulatory review in some areas (such as discipline and recruitment with the aim of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of processes), the key challenge facing the public service is to improve implementation by promoting a culture of service excellence.
Output 3: Business Processes, Systems, Decision Rights and Accountability
This output which will ensure an alignment of business processes, will focus on supply chain management including procurement; the implementation of PAJA, delegations and decision rights, financial management, organisational design and business processes. A number of departments and institutions at the centre of government are responsible for leading the process of improving the efficiency, effectiveness and development orientation of the public service as a whole. These include; the Presidency, the Premiers’ Offices, the Department of Public Service and Administration, National Treasury, the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, the Public Service Commission, and the Department of Public Works.
Output 4: Corruption Tackled Effectively
Anti-corruption initiatives will be stepped up to strengthen the prevention and detection of corrupt activities, and significantly speed up enforcement responses. The focus is on developing the capacity of departments and other government institutions to carry out the initial investigations which are required before cases are referred to the law enforcement agencies, and to carry out internal disciplinary processes effectively and efficiently.
One fundamental innovation is that while the focus of anti-corruption prevention capacity will remain within departments and other institutions, enforcement will be strengthened by a new specialised anti-corruption unit to be located within the DPSA. This unit will operate through a multi-agency approach which will include the coordination of anti-corruption initiatives within the public sector.
The unit will ensure that gaps in the existing anti-corruption regulatory framework are covered (for instance minimum anti-corruption capacity in departments not currently being regulated and limited coverage of the financial disclosure framework and its non-existence for local government). It will also focus on implementation support to ensure that the existing anti-corruption legislation is implemented better and more effectively. Most importantly, the unit will step up investigative capacity from the perspective of the employer to ensure a swift and appropriate disciplinary response. This new approach will significantly improve the responsiveness and credibility of the anti-corruption hotline.
AN EMPOWERED, FAIR AND INCLUSIVE CITIZENSHIP
Output 1: Nation Building and National Identity
Apartheid-era conceptions of nation-building and national identity made race and ethnicity the core values of political belonging and of social solidarity. Democracy in South Africa is associated with a rejection of ethno-nationalism and a move to place the norms and values of citizenship at the heart of national identity. Efforts at nation-building therefore have to place citizenship education and citizenship empowerment at the core of government’s efforts. Concretely, this means encouraging awareness amongst South Africans about the constitution as well as their rights and their responsibilities as citizens.
The embrace of civic-nationalism also means recognising the great diversity of South Africans in their roles and positions in society, in terms of culture and religion, in terms of sexual orientations and also of their political opinions. It thus is important to make South Africans aware of this diversity as part of a broader message about citizenship, that South Africans are socially diverse, yet common in their Citizenship.
Government will develop multiple and diverse campaigns and educational interventions to educate South Africans about the history of the Constitution, what it says, how it works and what rights and responsibilities it grants to and expects from Citizens. Understanding and appreciating diversity in South Africa is more than about cultural sensitivity and awareness. It must be expanded to educating South Africans about diversity in a broader sense, of gender and race and class and political opinions.
Citizenship education will be included in the training and preparation of public servants. PALAMA will play an important role in this process. The emphasis must not be limited to understanding laws and regulations and on how to apply them and/or operate within them. Public servants must come to understand the rights of citizens and the responsibilities that public servants have towards them as part of a broader focus on the meaning of South Africa’s democracy and the challenges of development. The Department of the Premier, the Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation and the Department of Education will collaborate to implement the activities under this output.
Output 2: Citizen Participation
Making citizenship central to South African national identity means empowering South Africans to behave as citizens in their vertical relationships with public bodies and with respect to the law. In order for citizenship to be fair and inclusive, citizens will be afforded access to accurate and up to date information about government and its activities. In this regard, government departments and agencies at all levels will need to build the institutional capacity to respond accurately and quickly to information requests from the public.
Citizens will also need to know what forums and processes exist, where they are and how they operate. The fairness and inclusivity of such processes is also measured by the degree to which they are accessible to all, especially to women, the disabled and the poor. In this regard, special attention will be paid to issues of institutional or process design so as to maximise participation.
Output 3: Social Cohesion
One of the key measures of nation-building is the degree to the existence of strong, horizontal relationships between South African citizens. A socially cohesive and democratic society is one where individuals treat each other with fairness, respect and as equals. There is a need to develop democratic social capital to meet this measure.
There are several key measures of the degree to which the norms and values of citizenship permeate into social relations. Foremost is the manner in which women and children are treated in society. South Africa has high levels of violence against women and children and in responding this output will be the development of ongoing programmes to reduce such violence. The achievement of social equality is realised given the degree to which citizen fora are accessible to all, especially women and the disabled as well as the degree to which the rules and regulations governing them are transparent and easily available. For this purpose, government departments and agencies will actively engineer participatory forums to maximise their effectiveness.
The challenge for social citizenship is to translate the norms and values of citizenship into behaviours and practices between citizens themselves. Volunteerism in civil-society bodies encourages generalised social trust and reinforces the values of the Constitution. In addition, apart from the health benefits and pleasure derived from participation in sports, sports promote a sense of fair play, of observation of the rule of law, of team-work and cooperation. These values are key to the development of social trust and social solidarity. There is substantial evidence to show that sport has the ability to overcome social barriers and empower individuals. Sports can assist in increasing social cohesion and they provide opportunities for engagement in community life through voluntary work.
Well-designed sport and physical activity programs are powerful tools for fostering healthy child and individual development, teaching positive values and life skills, reducing conflict and criminal behaviour, strengthening education and preventing disease (particularly HIV and AIDS). These programmes can help empower and promote the inclusion of marginalized groups, especially women, the youth, rural and people with disabilities. Sports unparalleled popularity and reach also makes it a highly effective communication and social mobilisation tool.